COST-BENEFIT RELATIONS IN AIR QUALITY STANDARDS:
BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH FOR ASSESSING
THE HEALTH COSTS OF AIR POLLUTION

Donald E. Watson, M.D.

Lawrence Livermore Laboratory
Bio-Medical Division
 
 Abstract
 

 Introduction

 

 Cost-Benefit Analysis in Setting Standards

 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Values

 The Role of the "Standards-Setter"

 The Contribution of Biomedical Science

 The Air Pollution Control Strategy and Biomedical Science

 The Limited Validity of the Strategy

 Consequences of the Strategy—"Implied Research"

 Limitations of Experimental Methods in Biomedical Research

 Nonlinear Interactive Effects

 "Proof of Causality"

 Human vs Animal Experimentation

 Quantification vs Discovery of Effects

 Systems for Studying Biological Effects

 Biochemical Systems

 Cellular Systems

 Pathophysiological Methods

 Pathogenesis

 Epidemiological Studies

 Conclusions

 Acknowledgments

 References

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 2. D.E. Watson, "Comparative Environmental Costs of Various Energy Sources; a Perspective," in Proc. Health Phys. Soc. Sixth Ann. Topical Symp., Radiation Protection Standards: Quo Vadis, Vol. 2, pp. 366-376 (1971).

 3. J.B. Mudd, R. Leavitt, A. Ongun, and T. T. McManus, "Reaction of Ozone with Amino Acids and Proteins," Atmos. Environ. 3, 669-682 (1971).

 4. J.D. Thrasher, "Effects of Mercuric Compounds on Dividing Cells," in Effects of Drugs on the Cell Cycle, 1. F. Cameron and G. Padilla, Eds., in press, Academic Press (1972).

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 6. T.T. Crocker and L. L. Nunes, "The Effect of Cigarette Smoke Condensate, Air Pollution Composite, and Benzo(a)pyrene on Monkey Respiratory Mucosa in Organ Culture," unpublished document. (1972).

 7. D.E. Watson, The Risk of Carcinogenesis from Long-Term Low-Dose Exposure to Pollution Emitted by Fossil-Fueled Power Plants, University of California, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Rept. UCRL-50937 (1970).

 8. W. Aronow, C. Harris, and S. Rokaw, "The Effect of Freeway Travel on Angina," Ann. Intern. Med. in press (1972).

 9. Y. Matsumura, "The Effects of Ozone, Nitrogen Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide on the Experimentally Induced Allergic Respiratory Disorder in Guinea Pigs: III. The Effect on the Occurrence of Dyspneic Attacks," Am. Rev. Resp. Dis. 102, 444-447 (1970).

 10. R.F. Bils, "Ultrastructural Effect of Air Pollution on Lung Cells," J. Air Pollut. Contr. Ass. 18, 313-314 (1968).

 11. E. Goldstein, W. S. Tyler, P. D. Hoeprich, and C. Eagle, "Ozone and the Antibacterial Defense Mechanisms of the Murine Lung," Arch. Intern. Med. 127, 1099-1102 (1971).

 12. S. Rokaw, Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association of Los Angeles. California, personal communication (April 1972).